Lots of great information here, but having solved a number of these cases I'd just like to add:
1.) It is NOT connect the dots---the line represents the underlying continuity that is present in the original. If you have ripped off a pad, all you need to do is build a thin wire jumper to restore continuity from the pin/pad to the right line---not re-create a whole new trace on top of the board.
2.) It is probably not a good idea to have exposed jumpers on the vBatt line unprotected in a phone that you are holding near your face. but that's just an opinion.
3.) The four capacitors are non-essential (from experience). You can get away with knocking them off and not notice any defect.
4.) The two resistors are essential---continuity requires you a path through them. If they are gone, you must make a thin wire jumper to connect their two pads.
5.) The most important thing is continuity. Just test from the battery connector pin to the end of the line and see if you get a beep with your multimeter set on continuity testing. If yes, you're done. If no, you have a mistake.
6.) The battery connector itself should never not have continuity between pin 1 and pin 4--if it does, you have an internal short in the phone and this is the reason you're phone won't boot.
if you get in trouble and need a DIY rescue service, feel free to give me shout via my profile.