This happened to my Satellite A665 a week ago, first noticed as intermittent random failure to charge my cell phone (i.e. failure even to put the charging symbol on the battery icon in its status bar), when it did charge from pure power type chargers. After reading the first answer above, I safely removed all USB devices (including the mouse; for the sake of purity, I used the touch pad, which I HATE, until the problem was resolved), used the Device Manager to uninstall both USB root hubs, shut down the computer, removed the power plug and battery, and held down the power button for 30 seconds.
With the power cord plugged in and the batter reinstalled, I powered up, and the process of reinstalling the root hubs and their subsidiaries, which took quite a while since the last two driver searches took about 10 minutes. After that, I reinstalled each USB device, starting with a thumb drive, then the mouse receiver, then the cell phone interface (verifying the ability to get Windows Explorer to show the files), on each USB port in turn. After this, I was prompted to restart the computer, which I did with all USB ports empty again. After the second restart, everything works and the phone is charging.
One peculiarity of USB in Windows, which I'm sure most of you have noticed, is that a new device, once installed, is "installed" only on that particular port; when inserted into a different port, it goes through the driver install sequence again, until it "exists" as a potentially available "old" device on every port. I don't know if Windows 8, or 8.1, or 10 has corrected this. It is a minor nuisance with three ports, but with one or two hubs bringing the count to 8 or 10, unless the user wants to dedicate a port to each device, it can be tedious to install a new device COMPLETELY.
But the first tip did the job. I speculate that the problem may have started when the fourth port, described in the manual as the eSATA+USB sleep and charge, was used to connect a FitBit receiver dongle (in front of the mouse receiver), and then the phone, because there was no phone charging problem until then. I intend to avoid using that port at all until the computer can be replaced with a newer one.
Thanks for the help.