Looking at your systems specs (see above under your question) we see your system can support a SATA III (6.0 Gb/s) drives. And looking at the Crucial specs for the SSD it too is SATA III. So from a SATA I/O speed perspective its compatible.
An as you have managed to see the drive externally via a USB connection we know the drive is functional.
And now you state you have also replace the SATA cable. Still with no luck.
At this point I would put the original HD back in to make sure the SATA cable connection on the logic board is still working. If the original drive works we have isolated it back down to the SSD unit and the way it was prepared.
Using the external SATA to USB connection for your SSD drive lets open Disk Utility from the HD thats now running your system. Keeping it on the First Aid tab, lets take a look at the drive:
In the left column click on the drive its self (most left icon). Then looking at the bottom you should see to columns of information in the bottom right column you should see this: Partition Map Scheme: GUID Partition Table If not your drive is not properly prepped to be a bootable drive for Mac OS-X. Use the Erase tab to reformat the drive and make sure you set the format for Mac OS Extended (Journaled).
Next if your Map scheme is correct you should click on the second icon just below the base icon of your drive this is the partition icon. Again look at the bottom information section here in the first column second entry you should see this: Format: Mac OS Extended (Journaled) it too must be the correct format type so OS-X can be made bootable.