You could have a problem with the charging circuit of your iPhone, a defective battery, or a mistake during re-assembly during the first repair.
I would start with the following:
1- Follow this guide to remove the bracket that covers the screen connectors (step 10), and *IMPORTANT* examine the screws that are holding the bracket in place. Make sure the sizes were correctly placed last time. If one of the long screws (tagged as Orange or Yellow) was used in place of one of the shorter screws (tagged as Red), you could have damaged the phone during the previous repair. Let us know if you see this.
2- If the screws were correctly placed, breathe a sigh of relief and continue following the steps till 18 and 19. Remove the bracket holding the (battery connector) and the (charging-dock connector) to the board.
4- Unplug those 2 connectors, not just the battery connector like the guide says.
5- Use a magnifying glass to examine the 2 connectors on the board, and the small components around them to see if anything is partly broken off, completely missing, or broken or torn.
6- If all ok, gently re-seat the connectors and make sure they are properly seated.
7- Re-assemble your phone, *watch-out for the placement of the screws of step 10!! place them were indicated and don't over-tighten* then restart and test your phone.
8- If the issue persists, this time you need to rule-out the battery: the one you previously installed could be defective. Try replacing again from a different supplier, or by putting back the old one.
8- If using a different battery doesn't solve it, and you still can't get your phone to hold a charge once it completely discharged using any new or old battery, you could have a problem with the charging circuit of your iPhone, that arises more often if a cheap knock-off cable and charger are used.
Apple would exchange your iPhone in this case, but since you already tempered with it, I doubt they will accept to anymore!
Let us know if the above helped, and if yes, what step in particular.