It might be worth starting with an SMC reset. This will often revive hardware that the machine doesn't recognize.
Let's also make sure the computer really doesn't recognize the card. Open System Profiler (Applications/Utilities/System Profiler), select Network/Wi-Fi, and look to see whether the computer detects an interface (probably under the name en1). If it sees the card, then the card should work - at least in theory.
In the 2010 model, the WiFi card has several cables attached: Two antenna cables with coaxial connectors, and a ribbon cable connected to the iSight camera assembly (to my eye, the camera cable has to be how the AirPort card connects to the logic board, as there doesn't seem to be any socket). All this is mashed inside the hinge clutch area, where the display joins the bottom case. It's possible that during the keyboard replacement, one or more of the cables got disconnected or loosened. It's most likely to be the camera's ribbon cable; normally, if the card is connected to the logic board but the antennas are not, you can see the card, but your WiFi range is greatly reduced. Steps 18-24 in the iFixit replacement manual cover the cable attachments.
It's possible that the card is actually dead. Right now, iFixit doesn't list the 2010 card at all; PowerbookMedic.com lists the card as "currently unavailable", but they also list the Apple and OEM part numbers: Apple #661-5593, Mfr. #607-6331-A. I find one such card on eBay for nearly twice PowerbookMedic's price; other online retailers charge up to $120 for the card. Yikes. Try the SMC reset and the cable thing first.
MacBook Pro 13" Unibody Mid 2010 AirPort Card Replacement