You installed the older cable! I would install the newer version MacBook Pro 13" Unibody (Mid 2012) Hard Drive Cable - Apple P/N 923-0104.
I would start there.
What did you connect your new SSD into? A MS Windows system, or, a Mac to test it.
Lets try connecting the SSD externally using a SATA to USB connection to a working Mac System so we can prep the drive externally. Here's one adapter: Startech 2.5" SATA to USB adapter
Here's a good reference to prep the drive: [osxdaily.com/2012/01/04/format-an-external-hard-drive-or-usb-flash-drive-for-mac-os-x/|Format an External Hard Drive or USB Flash Drive for Mac OS X]. We want to make sure there is only one partition on the drive and that needs to be GUID/MAC OS Extended Journaled.
If you have a friend with a Mac have hime help you create a USB OS Installer drive. I would recommend sticking with MacOS Sierra with a SATA SSD Apple still has some issues with queueing which I'm hoping will be fixed soon. Here's a good write up to walk you though it: How to create a bootable macOS Sierra installer drive.
Now plugging both the new SSD and the OS installer to your system you should be able to see and install the OS onto your new SSD. Make sure you it boots up on its own and then plug it back in internally. You should be working now. If not you might have a bad cable or damaged it some how.