Do you have any external case or USB to SATA adapter to hold your SSD? If you do I would first see what happens setting up a clean partition & format the partition. Make sure your drive is set with GUID. If that works then you'll need to focus on how you have the drive connected here. If you swapped out the HD then the HD SATA cable is bad. Apple did have a bad run of cables so it's a strong likelihood.
If you are using a dual drive setup then you have encountered a known issue with the optical drives SATA port is not up to SATA III spec. Review the note entries at the bottom: OWC Data Doubler
- MacBook Pro 13" models: Apple does not support the use of 6Gb/s drives in the optical bay. While we have observed a high rate of success using SATA 3.0 6Gb/s drives in Apple 13" bays where 6Gb/s link is present, some systems may not operate properly with this setup. For guaranteed reliability/compatibility, we suggest 6Gb/s drives be used in the main drive bay only, and 3Gb/s hard drives or SSDs be used in the optical bay when a two-drive configuration is desired. We cannot guarantee proper or successful 6Gb/s drive operation in the Apple MacBook Pro 13" optical bay.
It makes no difference who's carrier you use the issue is with the SATA port logic in the system. What this means here is your Samsung SSD is not able to be used in a optical drive carrier. The reason here is the SATA speed of your SSD is auto setting so it tries to sync with SATA III but because the clocking is off it can't sync and yet it can't drop to the lower SATA speed. This is were you need a fixed speed drive.
The last thing here is making sure both your systems firmware & the Samsung SSD's firmware is upto date. Here's the Apple T/N you'll need to review to check and if needed update your systems firmware: About EFI and SMC firmware updates for Intel-based Mac computers. You'll need to prep up a special CD to run the Samsung firmware updater. Here's the Samsung Upgrade page: Samsung SSD Firmware Updates for Mac Users. For either make sure your system is stable as any disruption can corrupt the firmware causing complete failure.