The drive you got still needs to be formatted and prepped with the OS (Mac OS-X). Which is why you are stuck here.
You'll need to find a friend with a Mac to create a bootable external disk ideally a USB thumb drive or using the SATA to USB adapter with your disk. The USB thumb drive will give you a backup bootable drive which over time will be helpful to have (for the next time).
OK, you've managed to find a friend with a Mac bring your thumb drive (16GB or larger) or your drive with the adapter. Lastly, don't forget the two bottles of wine for payback! ;-}
With your friends Mac delete the partition on the drive (USB thumb drive or your drive) using Disk Utility. Then setup GUID partition mapping with a Mac OS Extended (Journaled) partition. Once done download from the App Store the OS installer (if your friend doesn't already have a copy of it downloaded) make a backup copy, then run it. Make sure you select your drive and install the OS onto it. Once done restart the Mac system holding down the Option key to get to the boot menu select your drive and see if it boots up if so you're almost done! Copy from your friends Mac the OS installer onto your drive so you have it. If you did this on the USB thumb drive you'll repeat the process to install the OS on your systems internal drive when you get home. Shut your friends Mac system down disconnect your drive and restart the system.
Enjoy the rest of the wine! When you get home repeat the task on your HD or install your HD back into your system. I do strongly recommend you make a bootable backup drive as you will need it later for repairing your drive when it gets into trouble.