Water damage is a pretty serious issue for computers. I would suggest taking it to a local service center to have them conduct a diagnostic. The water has had 2 years to settle in your computer, it could have oxidised several components, made connections and caused shorts, and left other residue in your computer. It might take some pretty hefty repairs to get it running 100% again. If you feel confident, go ahead with @alexniculescu 's suggestion, and attempt a cleaning yourself, but I would not get my hopes up for that one.
Error 56 usually occurs when attempting to update with faulty/glitchy hardware. You'll need to use DFU mode to restore the phone. A few solutions have been thrown around in the following question: What is (unknown error 56) iPhone 6 More info on DFU mode
If you took things out of your Mac to clean it, you may have forgotten to reconnect something during reassembly. Without knowing exactly what you took out of the Mac, my immediate suggestion is to go back and ensure that everything is connected properly.
When I upgraded to IOS 11 upon release, there was a known issue regarding TouchID that affected my iPhone 6, and I had to delete my saved fingerprints and re-scan my fingers to solve this. However, it did give me a failed TouchID message when it failed. I would say try to re-scan your fingerprints first, if that doesn't work, there may be an issue with the print scanner in the home button, it could be worth replacing the home button. Before commencing repairs or taking it to a repair service, make sure you take some basic steps such as cleaning the home button of dirt, grime, etc, and ensuring that both your finger and the button are dry.
The GPS module on the iPhone six sits near the top of the screen. More than likely, that was damaged with the screen crack, as you expressed concern with your GPS functionality. If you feel like taking this on yourself, I have linked the iFixit kit/guide for this component below, otherwise, consult your local repair service. iFixit Wi-Fi Antenna Kit and Guide
This error you see (4hdd/11/40000004:SATA(0,0)) means you need a new hard drive. If you recently replaced it, check to make sure that the SATA cord is plugged in, and the drive is installed correctly. If not, then I would suggest looking into buying a new SSD and replacing it, or taking it to a repair service to get it replaced. For more information, you can check out a similar question asked: Try reinstalling osx again, or replace HDD?
Have you had any recent repairs or trauma to the iPhone? (dropping, water damage, etc) If so, please describe, if not, read below. Firstly, try using a different cord, perhaps the one you are using is damaged in some way. If not, do a soft-reset. To soft-reset the phone, hold the home button and the lock button at the same time until you see the Apple logo appear. Release the buttons and let it start up normally. If the soft-reset doesn't work, make sure the device is powered off, and hold the hold the home button and the lock button until you see the iTunes Logo appear with a picture of the lightning charging cable. Once you see that screen, plug it into your computer with iTunes running, from there you should be able to restore the phone, and that should fix the problem. (Note that the restore will erase all data on the phone, as it restores the phone to factory settings. Once restored, however, you should be able to bring your data back from a previous back-up, if you have one.) If these methods don't work...