Answer to: Installed new HD not showing upThe hard drive you installed is simply a blank drive, it has to be formatted a specific way and needs at least an OS X recovery partition in order to install the rest of the OS onto the other partition. This page may help you: how to make a bootable OS X 10.10 Yosemite Install drive
Answer to: Cannot turn off Mac or restart without resetting nvramIf you hold down the power button in the top right for ~5 seconds your MacBook will force shutdown and stop beeping. Three beeps is an error code on the MBP's for a RAM issue. What you can do to try and resolve this yourself is get a Phillips #00 screwdriver and follow this guide to remove your RAM sticks. iFixit MacBook Pro RAM Replacement 15" Shouldn't take more then 10 minutes to remove them. Then try inserting a single RAM stick into one of the ports and see if it will turn on and boot up. Repeat this step with each RAM stick in each port. This will tell you if one of your sticks of RAM, one of the slots, or something else on the Logic Board is the issue.
Answer to: SATA cable aka grey folder with question markIf disk utility is giving you an error saying it cannot find the disk (which is what the folder with a question mark essentially means) you have three outcomes on that model: (1) SSD failure(Most Likely): The computer cannot communicate with the drive. See the recall another user posted in their answer. (2) Logic Board Failure: The circuitry and/or parts on the Logic Board have failed, preventing connection to the SSD. (3) OS corruption: Something with your MacBook's startup OS files has become corrupt on the SSD. (Since you can't easily remove the SSD and connect it to another Mac though, this probably won't help.) Unfortunately if a computer can't see the disk then there's a very slim chance of getting any data off of it.