Well, your up a tree aren't you ;-}
Without your HD connected to your system you can't leverage the hidden repair partition if its accessible.
You'll need to see if you can get the old HD to boot up your system using a device like this: Startech 2.5" SATA to USB adapter, then you should be able to download and install the OS onto your system. Here's a useful reference: Startup key combinations for Mac. Your other option is to connect your system to a second Mac and then use Target Mode to prep your SSD. Or, lastly create a bootable OS installer from a friends Mac following this: How to make a bootable OS X 10.11 El Capitan installer drive. This is a useful tool for later! I have a 16 GB USB thumb drive setup for each OS I support.
Sadly, your system does not support internet recovery https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201314. Apple updated the systems firmware awhile ago but as far as I know only 2010 (MacBookPro5,1) or newer systems have the ability once MacBook Pro EFI Firmware Update 2.6 was installed. Here is the full firmware listing: About EFI and SMC firmware updates for Intel-based Mac computers but even this list is not the last word here as Apple also did some follow up updates within Mavericks, El Capitan & Sierra. As I don't have an older 2009 system any more I can't tell you if Apple added it or not.
But thats all a moot point right now as you'll need first get the SSD prepped up. During the OS install process it will create a hidden recovery partition so you'll have that to fall back on even if you can't get internet recovery working.