Don't know the setup of your particular phone brand. In this regard different brands can vary as to the location (if any) of the USB connection options. A lot are only visible once the PC has been connected via a working USB cable.
Therefore try the following and see if anyone of them resolves your problem.
1. Try a different USB cable and/or USB port in your PC?
2. Visually inspect the USB port in your phone (with a magnifying glass) to ensure that there are no bent or broken connectors or dust in the slot. Do not prod about with anything if there is something in there. You may cause more damage. If it is lint or dust try to remove it with a vacuum cleaner.
3. Go to Menu > Settings > Storage > tap on 'settings' icon (3 vertical dots) in top right corner, tap on USB computer connection. Select option.
4. Go to Menu > Settings > Applications (Apps) > Development > USB Debugging ensure it is enabled.