Honestly I have never worked on one of these. I have spent a fair amount of time studying them. I do have a strong background in laptop repair. I only have what information you have given to go by. If the camera was recognized prior to the liquid damage I would suspect the problem is directly related to that. You gave no hint as to if the laptop was disassembled to clean up from the spill. Thus I must assume it wasn't and therefore no chance for the camera issue and/or backlight problem to be connection related, unless there is liquid damage that some how affected some/one connection(s). The LVDS/video data cable and the camera cable are incorporated together, please see here. Three of the wires in the LVDS cable are where the LED backlight get the voltage needed for it to operate. As you mentioned these do not have a backlight inverter. They have a LED backlight that doesn't need one. The LED backlight driver circuitry is directly in front of the LVDS connector on one side of the board and almost underneath it on the other side. With the camera data cable being incorporated with the LVDS cable, it would make sense for at least some of it's circuitry to be in that vicinity. Apple uses USB emulation for the iSight. Each USB channel is capable of handling 2 USB devices. If the camera problem is related to a short, I would suspect that another USB device is malfunctioning also (USB port, keyboard, Bluetooth, etc....).
What I recommend for you to do is to follow this iFixit guide to remove the logic board. Then follow this guide to clean up from the liquid damage. In the process of doing this you will have not only removed any residue or corrosion caused by the spill, but will have reseated all the connections. The longer you wait and more times you apply electricity to a liquid damaged circuit board the greater your chances of permanent damage to the components and to the board itself.