Your phone is locked by the "Factory Reset Protection". This is basically a thing that makes your phone a brick should someone steal it, reset it, and try to use it. By brick I mean useless to the person who stole the phone, not the owner. If you knew you were going to reset the phone you should have deleted your google account from the "accounts" page in the settings before doing so if you didn't know your log in.
It's literally impossible for a consumer to bypass this lock. Even a repair shop will not be able to do it. Samsung have that ability locked up tighter than Fort Knox. Where I work there are only 6 people across both shifts, each had to get special permission from Samsung themselves to have the ability, so no chance.
Best thing you can do is try to reset your password like you would for any other site's login.
If you don't even know the email you used or anything then your last bet would be to try and talk to Verizon about it, I'm sure their facilities (similar to mine) have that ability. Or you could try contacting Samsung but I'm pretty sure they'll just shoot you down.
So if all else fails I would take it to Verizon and tell them your situation, and I would assume you have an account with them, and the phone is on that account, so then the IMEI would match up to you and they would identify you as the phone's owner and you might get somewhere. If for some reason you don't have it on an account with Verizon then I hate to say it but you're pretty much up $@$*'s creek, because that's the same situation a thief would be in at that point.