Well, I got good news for you! The system is OK only the drive is in trouble!
What you're seeing here with the new drive installed is the process the system goes through to recover its self (internet recovery). Try this tonight start up your system again connected to your Ethernet network and let it be. In the morning it should have recovered its self.
If that fails, you'll need to find a friend who has a Mac so you can either connect your system to it via a FireWire or Thunderbolt cable so you can start up your system in Target mode. This will allow your friend's Mac to see your Mac as if it was an external drive. Now you can use Disk Utility from his system to prep up the HD and then install the OS from the downloaded OS installer from the Apple store.
The other option here is to bring a 16 GB USB thumb drive and prep it us so its bootable, then copy over to it the OS installer so you can then use it to start your system and prep the drive and install the OS.
You might be able to recover your data from your old drive if you connect it via a SATA to USB adapter after you get the new internal drive working.