Before you begin I suggest you get another SATA cable and use it to attach to another SATA port on your motherboard. That will eliminate a bad cable and bad port out of the mix and help define the problem better. I would suggest downloading Digiwiz MiniPE burning it to disk, this version here has SATA support or do a Google you will find it. If you have important data on the disk, it has good recovery programs on it to help you do so. You are going to want to recover your data before attempting to make this bootable again. It also has a number of other utilities to repair/recover partitions and MBRs. You are going to need another hard drive to move the data you want to save over to it (maybe you can barrow one). You can't write on a disk you are recovering from without risking overwriting data. If you need any help after you get these things done let us know. On boot your system would/should tell you if the drive has a S.M.A.R.T. error, unless you have that shut off in your BIOS. With that in mind I believe you will not need another hard drive.