The Samsung SSD you've linked to is a 2,5" SATA II drive, which is the same size and connector as the original hard drive. Physically, it should swap in fine. A 2.5" hard drive/hybrid drive/SSD is the normal size for almost all laptops until a few years ago, when SSD cards started replacing traditional 2.5"-sized devices. Most 2.5" SSDs are 7mm high, while the traditional platter drives are 9.5mm high; SSDs in the original retail package usually include a spacer to fill the gap, but your mounting bracket may eliminate that need.
I've had complications with replacing hard drives with SSDs in older pre-2012 MacBooks/MacBook Pros: Sometimes the SSD won't mount on the desktop when it's run internally, although the original HD works fine and the SSD works as an external drive. In one of these cases, I got a recommendation from an OtherWorld Computing tech support operator that's worked every time I've tried it: Replace the original hard drive ribbon cable (which attaches the HD/SSD to the logic board) with a brand new cable. SSDs transfer data a lot faster than HDs; the tech's explanation was that the original cable may get damaged through wear, while the new cable allows a cleaner signal. This may be especially important in a case like yours, where the 3Gb SATA II needs to downscale to the 1.5Gb SATA I connection on your logic board.
I don't know how accurate that tech's explanation is, but I've tried it in eight different Mac laptops from 2007 through 2011, and the cable replacement trick has worked each time. You can certainly try the original cable first, and then replace the cable with a new one if you can't get the MacBook to boot off the internal SSD.
MacBook Core 2 Duo Hard Drive Replacement
MacBook Core 2 Duo Hard Drive Connector Replacement
MacBook Hard Drive Cable