I'm sorry to hear you have has such bad luck here.
Did you put the cable in or did a repair shop do it? There are two issues here
- The first Apple did have a bad run of cables so you do need to be careful which version of the cable you put in.
- The second issue is the cable can be damaged by rubbing at the corners where it bends. Both by the metal frames sharp edge as well as moving by not mounting the drive correctly. Make sure the rubber shock grommets are in place in all four mount points and I use some tape to help isolate the cable from the sharp edge. I've also seen a bent bottom cover also mess things up. Use a straight edge ruler to make sure.
One last point is make sure you shut down your system before lugging it around. You may have a badly aligned lid sensor so the system wakes up as you are carrying it around in sleep mode. I've see people corrupt the HD and think its the cable was the problem.
While opening your system can be over-whelming, this is one of the easier jobs you can do your self.
Review this IFIXIT guide: MacBook Pro 13" Unibody Early 2011 Hard Drive Cable Replacement.