You most likely have a damaged HD. It might be repairable with disk tools, or it could be physical damage or failure or, even that the disk is full (you've shared nothing about why you need to reinstall, nor how many times you've tried).
Boot into single-user mode (command-s). You will be in command line mode and should see white text on a black screen. At the end of several screens or scrolling a prompt with a cursor positioned after it will appear. At the prompt enter the following then press RETURN:
/sbin/fsck -fy (that's backslash sbin backslash SINGLE SPACE negative fy) return
If you receive a message that says'' "***** FILE SYSTEM WAS MODIFIED *****" the disk/mbd was damaged and you must re-run the command until you receive a message that says "** The volume (name_of_volume) appears to be OK." '' After you see this text to restart your machine type:
and press RETURN.
If you re-run the command more than seven times and do not get the OK message, then the drive cannot be repaired this way and you should replace the drive and restore from your latest backup OR if you have no backup, purchase an external case for your drive and see if you can recover files from the damaged drive.
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