Don't think so - the bus and GPU speeds are quite slower, you're looking at approximately 6yr jump in video technology development between the two. I understand the Retina panel also uses more current than the non-Retina panels.
Also rather than sandwich an LCD panel between a back case and a front glass, they used the aluminum case itself as the frame for the LCD panel and used the LCD as the front glass.
iFixit could not separate the LCD from the back without breaking it.
Lastly to run the OS you'd need a Mid/Late 2007 or newer machine.
The path to a Retina display (and btw if you're a Graphics Designer there are Photoshop problems) is by selling your old machine and buying one with a Retina display.
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